State & Local Government

RSS Feed for this category

Disenfranchisement News: Governor Backing out of 'Backwards' Requirement?

Disenfranchisement News

Sentencing Project

In this issue

·         Virginia: Governor Backing out of 'Backwards' Requirement? » GO

»» TAKE ACTION !

»» CONTRIBUTE !

 

Contact Us

Send an email to
The Sentencing Project.

» CONTACT

The Sentencing Project
514 Tenth Street, NW
Suite 1000
Washington, DC 20004
202.628.0871

 

April 16, 2010

Disenfranchisement News

Virginia

Governor Backing Out of 'Backwards' Requirement?

Virginia's new governor, Robert McDonnell, last weekend proposed adding yet another hurdle for residents seeking the restoration of voting rights - writing an essay. Despite the fact that 200 letters were sent to individuals explaining the need to write a detailed letter for restoration consideration, spokesman Tucker Martin said the media had reported prematurely and explained that a staffer erroneously sent the correspondence to residents. "This remains a draft policy proposal. Nothing has changed," he told the Washington Post.

He continued, "The Governor believes strongly in second chances and helping individuals regain their voting rights, and he is committed to instituting a restoring process that is the fastest and fairest in the modern history of Virginia."

Throughout this week, organizations, individuals and media editorials called the governor's proposal 'backwards' including coverage on MSNBC's Rachel Maddow and a strong editorial in the Washington Post which read:

"Now Mr. McDonnell may be compounding the damage by insisting that nonviolent former felons -- people convicted of shoplifting and other property crimes, for instance -- must do more than just apply to the state if they wish to vote, a process that until now has been time-consuming but generally successful for those who stick with it. Mr. McDonnell would have them submit a letter making the case that they have contributed to society since their release -- an utterly arbitrary standard. What's more, they are asked to explain why they think they should get their rights back.

As we see it, the correct answer is: Because they are rights. Period. By insisting on this exercise in expository writing, Mr. McDonnell is transforming the process into a kind of literacy test -- as obnoxious in its own way as the literacy tests of Jim Crow, which were intended to exclude blacks from voting. Whatever the intent, the likely effect will be to dissuade thousands of people who might otherwise apply."

The news came on the heels of the Governor declaring April "Confederate History Month" without including any reference to slavery; he later apologized and amended the proclamation. As reported by CBS affiliate WTVR, Doug Smith of the Virginia Interfaith Center for Public Policy said the idea has racist undertones, stemming from the 1902 Virginia Constitutional Convention when then-Delegate Carter Glass wanted to limit the power of African Americans in politics. In concurrence, American Prospect posted a blog that concluded with "Happy Confederate History Month."

Click the following news links to read more coverage.

Richmond Times-Dispatch

Washington Examiner

WHSV, ABC affiliate

Click the following news links to read editorials, blogs and op-ed columns:

Richmond Times-Dispatch

Huffington Post

Alternet.org
Washington Post

The Grio

ACLU

Prior to the governor's recanting, the Lawyers' Committee for Civil Rights wrote a letter to the Attorney General asking if Virginia would seek preclearance for the new requirement under Section 5 of the Voting Rights Act.

Democracy Restoration Act Lobby Day is scheduled for April 28 in Virginia to urge leaders to support proposed legislation that would allow individuals with felony records to vote in federal elections.

Back to top ^

The Sentencing Project is a national organization working for a fair and effective criminal justice system by promoting reforms in sentencing law and practice, and alternatives to incarceration.

Location: 
VA
United States

Marijuana Decriminalization: New Hampshire Bill Defeated in Senate Committee

A bill that would decriminalize the possession of a quarter-ounce or less of marijuana in New Hampshire appears dead this year after the Senate Judiciary Committee voted 5-0 Tuesday not to recommend it. The bill will still go before the full Senate, where it is expected to be defeated on a voice vote.

"It is now clear the bill will not become law this year, but it is also clear the discussion will continue," Matt Simon, director of the New Hampshire Coalition for Common Sense Marijuana Policy, told the North Andover (Massachusetts) Eagle Tribune after the vote.

The bill, HB 1653, passed the House on a 214-37 vote earlier this year. But Senate Judiciary Committee members said the threat of a gubernatorial veto made it dead on arrival because the Senate has other legislation to which to attend.

Simon said the Senate vote was a minor setback and that medical marijuana and decriminalization bills will be back. The legislature already defeated a marijuana legalization bill this year, but will study the tax benefits of legalizing pot this summer.

Harm Reduction: Colorado Bill Would Legalize Needle Exchanges

Colorado is one of just 17 US states that do not allow needle exchanges, but that could change under a bill before the Colorado Senate. The bill, SB 189, would allow local health departments to exchange dirty needles for clean ones in a bid to slow the spread of blood-borne diseases, such as HIV/AIDS and Hepatitis C among injection drug users.

http://stopthedrugwar.org/files/needle-exchange-logo.gif
widely-used needle exchange graphic
The bill passed its first legislative hurdle Wednesday, passing out of the Senate Health and Human Services Committee with only two no votes. It now goes before the Senate for a floor vote.

"This is intended to be a public health measure to stop the spread of infectious diseases," lead sponsor Sen. Pat Steadman (D-Denver) told ABC 7 News.

But the bill is generating opposition from solons who fear it will enable drug use. "It does give kind of a wink and a nod towards the use of illegal drugs," said Sen. Kevin Lundberg (R-Berthoud), who opposes the measure. "My common sense says a needle exchange program is a de facto drug legalization and I'm not going to go there. We've got a problem with illegal drugs," he said. "Let's not make it worse by saying maybe, sort of, kind of, you can do it."

"No one's condoning illegal drug use," Steadman retorted. "No one's saying, 'Go have a good time.' What we're saying is, 'Please be safe.'"

Under current Colorado law, groups are allowed to collect used syringes, but not exchange them for clean ones. The only city in the state that allows for needle exchanges is Boulder, which passed a 1989 law exempting some groups from prosecution for doing exchanges.

That doesn't mean there is no needle exchange in Denver, the state's largest city. The Underground Syringe Exchange of Denver (USED) has been doing exchanges since 2008 and has handed out more than 11,000 needles to drug users.

"We remove syringes off the streets of Denver," said USED member Chris Conner. "They wind up in our dumpsters. They wind up thrown away in public bathrooms or discarded in parks," he said. "So this is a public health issue for all of us."

Press Release: Hearing on Bill to Tax and Regulate Marijuana RESCHEDULED for Wednesday

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE                                                                                                                                 

APRIL 13, 2010

Hearing on Bill to Tax and Regulate Marijuana Rescheduled for Wednesday

H 7838 Would Create Regulated Marijuana Market Similar to Alcohol, Allow Adults to Purchase Marijuana From Licensed Retailers

CONTACT: Mike Meno, MPP director of communications …………… 202-905-2030 or mmeno@mpp.org

PROVIDENCE, RHODE ISLAND — Tomorrow, Wednesday, April 14, the Rhode Island House Judiciary Committee will receive testimony on H 7838, a bill that would tax and regulate marijuana similar to alcohol, allowing adults 21 and older to purchase up to an ounce of marijuana from registered retailers. The hearing was originally scheduled for today but has been postponed until tomorrow.

         Sponsored by Rep. Edith Ajello (D-Providence) and Rep. Rod Driver (D-Charlestown, Exeter, Richmond), H 7838 would prohibit advertising marijuana or using it in public places. It would also create a $50 an ounce excise tax on all marijuana sold by wholesalers. Revenue produced from the tax would go toward maintaining regulations, into the state General Fund, and also be used to fund drug and alcohol abuse treatment and prevention programs.

         WHAT: Hearing for H 7838, a bill to tax and regulate marijuana in Rhode Island

         WHO: Rep. Edith Ajello, the bill’s sponsor, and others will testify

         WHERE: Room 313, State House

         WHEN: WEDNESDAY, April 14, Rise of the House

            With more than 124,000 members and supporters nationwide, the Marijuana Policy Project is the largest marijuana policy reform organization in the United States. MPP believes that the best way to minimize the harm associated with marijuana is to regulate marijuana in a manner similar to alcohol. For more information, please visit www.mpp.org.

####

Location: 
RI
United States

Press Release: Bill to Decriminalize Marijuana Gets Hearing in Rhode Island Tomorrow

MEDIA ADVISORY                                                                                                                                               

APRIL 13, 2010

Bill to Decriminalize Marijuana Gets Hearing in Rhode Island Tomorrow

Bipartisan H 7317 Would Remove Criminal Penalties for Possession of Less Than One Ounce of Marijuana, Replace With $150 Fine

CONTACT: Mike Meno, MPP director of communications …………… 202-905-2030 or mmeno@mpp.org

PROVIDENCE, RHODE ISLAND — Tomorrow, Wednesday, April 14, the Rhode Island House Judiciary Committee will hold a hearing on H 7317, a bill that would remove criminal penalties for adults found possessing less than one ounce of marijuana and replace them with a $150 civil violation. Under current law, those found possessing small amounts of marijuana face up to a year in prison and a $500 fine.

         Introduced by Rep. John Edwards (D-Portsmouth, Tiverton), H 7317 is co-sponsored by 48 percent of the House of Representatives. In 2008, 65 percent of voters in neighboring Massachusetts voted to decriminalize marijuana. Last month, a bipartisan state Senate commission tasked with studying the effects of marijuana prohibition in Rhode Island voted 11-2 to recommend removing criminal penalties for the possession of small amounts of marijuana. In February, the editorial board of the Providence Journal endorsed decriminalizing marijuana as a way to relieve strain on the judicial system.

         WHAT: House Judiciary Committee hearing on H 7317, a bill to decriminalize marijuana in Rhode Island   

         WHO: Experts will testify in favor

         WHERE: House Lounge

         WHEN: Rise of the House

         With more than 124,000 members and supporters nationwide, the Marijuana Policy Project is the largest marijuana policy reform organization in the United States. MPP believes that the best way to minimize the harm associated with marijuana is to regulate marijuana in a manner similar to alcohol. For more information, please visit www.mpp.org.

####

Location: 
RI
United States

Press Release: Rhode Island To Hold Hearing on Bill to Tax and Regulate Marijuana

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE                                                                                                                                 

APRIL 12, 2010

Rhode Island To Hold Hearing on Bill to Tax and Regulate Marijuana

H 7838 Would Create Regulated Marijuana Market Similar to Alcohol, Allow Adults to Purchase Marijuana From Licensed Retailers

CONTACT: Mike Meno, MPP director of communications …………… 202-905-2030 or mmeno@mpp.org

PROVIDENCE, RHODE ISLAND — Tomorrow, Tuesday April 13, the Rhode Island House Judiciary Committee will receive testimony on H7838, a bill that would tax and regulate marijuana similar to alcohol, allowing adults 21 and older to purchase up to an ounce of marijuana from registered retailers.

         Sponsored by Rep. Edith Ajello (D-Providence) and Rep. Rod Driver (D-Charlestown, Exeter, Richmond), H 7838 would prohibit advertising marijuana or using it in public places. It would also create a $50 an ounce excise tax on all marijuana sold by wholesalers. Revenue produced from the tax would go toward maintaining regulations, into the state General Fund, and also be used to fund drug and alcohol abuse treatment and prevention programs.

         WHAT: Hearing for H 7838, a bill to tax and regulate marijuana in Rhode Island

         WHO: Rep. Edith Ajello, the bill’s sponsor, and others will testify

         WHERE: House Lounge

         WHEN: Tuesday, April 13, Rise of the House

            With more than 124,000 members and supporters nationwide, the Marijuana Policy Project is the largest marijuana policy reform organization in the United States. MPP believes that the best way to minimize the harm associated with marijuana is to regulate marijuana in a manner similar to alcohol. For more information, please visit www.mpp.org.

####

Location: 
RI
United States

Press Release: Maryland Senate Passes Medical Marijuana Bill

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE                                                                                                                                 

APRIL 10, 2010

Maryland Senate Passes Medical Marijuana Bill

Measure to Provide Patients With Safe Access Now Moves to House

CONTACT: Mike Meno, MPP director of communications …………… 202-905-2030 or mmeno@mpp.org

ANNAPOLIS, MARYLAND — Today, with no discussion or objections, the Maryland Senate voted 35-12 to pass SB 627, a bill that would allow qualified patients to be recommended medical marijuana by their doctor and receive safe access to their medicine through state-licensed distribution centers. The bill now moves to the House. The General Assembly’s session ends Monday night.

         “I’m very proud of my Senate colleagues today for voting to provide some of our most vulnerable residents with the compassion and care that they deserve,” said Sen. David Brinkley (R-Frederick), the bill’s sponsor and a two-time cancer survivor. “Anyone who has watched a loved one suffer from a debilitating illness would agree that we should not stand between doctors and patients, or deprive seriously ill people safe access to a legitimate medicine if it can help them cope with their illness.”

         “We think this bill offers the most carefully crafted medical marijuana law in the country,” said Sen. Jamie Raskin (D-Silver Spring), one of the bill’s co-sponsors. “It offers legal protection and safe medical access to patients who are desperately in need and takes every possible measure to prevent abuse. I’m hopeful that our colleagues in the House will give this proposal serious consideration, and make Maryland’s medical marijuana law a national model for how to promote medical privacy, social compassion, and security in administration.”

         Fourteen other states, including New Jersey, Rhode Island, and Maine, have effective medical marijuana laws. This year, more than a dozen other states, including New York, Illinois, Delaware, South Dakota, Arizona, and Kansas, are considering medical marijuana laws. The District Council of Washington, D.C. is working on a medical marijuana law expected to be implemented by the end of this year. 

         Under current Maryland law, medical marijuana patients are provided with a limited affirmative defense in court, no protection from arrest, and no safe means of access to their medicine. Patients can still be given a $100 fine that results in a criminal conviction.

         With more than 124,000 members and supporters nationwide, the Marijuana Policy Project is the largest marijuana policy reform organization in the United States. For more information, please visit www.mpp.org.

####

Location: 
MD
United States

Press Release: Maryland Senate Passes Medical Marijuana Bill

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE                                                                                                                                 

APRIL 10, 2010

Maryland Senate Passes Medical Marijuana Bill

Measure to Provide Patients With Safe Access Now Moves to House

CONTACT: Mike Meno, MPP director of communications …………… 202-905-2030 or mmeno@mpp.org

ANNAPOLIS, MARYLAND — Today, with no discussion or objections, the Maryland Senate voted 35-12 to pass SB 627, a bill that would allow qualified patients to be recommended medical marijuana by their doctor and receive safe access to their medicine through state-licensed distribution centers. The bill now moves to the House. The General Assembly’s session ends Monday night.

         “I’m very proud of my Senate colleagues today for voting to provide some of our most vulnerable residents with the compassion and care that they deserve,” said Sen. David Brinkley (R-Frederick), the bill’s sponsor and a two-time cancer survivor. “Anyone who has watched a loved one suffer from a debilitating illness would agree that we should not stand between doctors and patients, or deprive seriously ill people safe access to a legitimate medicine if it can help them cope with their illness.”

         “We think this bill offers the most carefully crafted medical marijuana law in the country,” said Sen. Jamie Raskin (D-Silver Spring), one of the bill’s co-sponsors. “It offers legal protection and safe medical access to patients who are desperately in need and takes every possible measure to prevent abuse. I’m hopeful that our colleagues in the House will give this proposal serious consideration, and make Maryland’s medical marijuana law a national model for how to promote medical privacy, social compassion, and security in administration.”

         Fourteen other states, including New Jersey, Rhode Island, and Maine, have effective medical marijuana laws. This year, more than a dozen other states, including New York, Illinois, Delaware, South Dakota, Arizona, and Kansas, are considering medical marijuana laws. The District Council of Washington, D.C. is working on a medical marijuana law expected to be implemented by the end of this year. 

         Under current Maryland law, medical marijuana patients are provided with a limited affirmative defense in court, no protection from arrest, and no safe means of access to their medicine. Patients can still be given a $100 fine that results in a criminal conviction.

         With more than 124,000 members and supporters nationwide, the Marijuana Policy Project is the largest marijuana policy reform organization in the United States. For more information, please visit www.mpp.org.

####

Location: 
MD
United States

Feature: Philadelphia to Not Quite Decriminalize Marijuana

People caught with 30 grams (a bit more than an ounce) or less of marijuana in Philadelphia will no longer be charged with criminal misdemeanors, but with summary offenses under a new policy that will go into effect later this month. Fines are expected to be in the $200 to $300 range.

http://www.stopthedrugwar.org/files/independencehall.jpg
Independence Hall, Philadelphia
But while pot smokers won't face criminal charges, they will still be arrested, handcuffed, searched, detained, and fingerprinted. Then, their cases will be heard by a special "quality of life" court that is already in use for things like dealing with unruly Eagles fans and public drinking.

"We're not going to stop locking people up," Lt. Frank Vanore, a police spokesman, told the Philadelphia Inquirer Monday. Marijuana possession remained illegal, he said. "We're going to stop people for it... Our officers are trained to do that. Whether or not they make it through the charging process, that's up to the DA. We can't control that. Until they legalize it, we're not going to stop."

After the Inquirer ran its story Monday, emphasizing that the policy change would "all but decriminalize" marijuana possession, District Attorney Seth Williams had to issue a statement of clarification:

"We are not decriminalizing marijuana -- any effort like that would be one for the legislature to undertake. The penalty available for these minimal amount offenses remains exactly the same. What we are doing is properly dealing with cases involving minimal amounts of marijuana in the most efficient and cost effective process possible. Those arrested for these offenses will still be restrained, identified and processed by police in police custody. They will still have to answer to the charges, but they will be doing so in a speedier and more efficient process. We want to use valuable court resources in the best way possible and we believe that means giving minor drug offenders the option of getting into diversionary programs, get drug education or enter drug treatment centers. Again we are NOT decriminalizing marijuana, and the penalty for these offenses remains the same."

"It will be charged as a summary offense, but you will still get arrested, booked, and fingerprinted," confirmed Tasha Jamerson, media director for the district attorney's office. "But instead of getting processed as a misdemeanor, it is processed as a summary offense, and you face only one court appearance."

"They are making a policy out of what is the common practice," said Chris Goldstein of Philadelphia NORML, which has been lobbying local officials for reforms. "People arrested for a Class A marijuana possession misdemeanor for less than 30 grams typically pleaded down to disorderly conduct, but it took a court hearing to make that happen. Prosecutors are making a pragmatic choice here; this will save them a lot of time and money."

The policy shift is the result of a collaboration between new District Attorney Seth Williams and a pair of Pennsylvania Supreme Court judges. It is part of an effort to unclog the city's overwhelmed court dockets.

Under Williams' predecessor, former DA Lynne Abraham, police arrested an average of 3,000 people a year for small-time pot possession, about 75% of them black. Last year, the arrest figure jumped to more than 4,700. That figure represents roughly 5% of the city's criminal caseload.

About another 2,000 are arrested for marijuana distribution and 2,500 more are arrested for possession of more than 30 grams. Overall, enforcing drug prohibition has resulted in about 18,000 arrests a year in Philadelphia, or nearly one-third of the entire criminal caseload.

"We have to be smart on crime," Williams told the Inquirer. "We can't declare a war on drugs by going after the kid who's smoking a joint on 55th Street. We have to go after the large traffickers."

Supreme Court Chief Justice Ronald Castille, one of the two justices who worked with Williams on the policy shift, said summary prosecution was "appropriate" for such a small-time offense. "It's a minor crime when you're faced with major drug crimes." Removing such cases from the criminal courts, he said, "unclogs the system."

"The marijuana consumers of Philadelphia welcome this," said Goldstein. "This is a very progressive thing to do on the part of the city," Goldstein said of the new policy. "I couldn't be happier about this."

Goldstein was much less enthused by the continued arrests policy. "It is completely absurd," he said. "It's harsh. For minor marijuana possession, it's very harsh treatment."

Nor was he convinced that the policy shift would do anything to reduce racially-biased marijuana law enforcement. "If we're paying attention to pot arrests in Philadelphia, we have to note that most are black. There hasn't been a single month when more than 10 white women have been arrested for less than 30 grams. Just go to a Phillies game parking lot. They could arrest a hundred white women in an hour out there," he said.

"At the same time, about 60 black women and 350 black men are getting arrested for it each month," Goldstein continued. "This points to bias in enforcement, and it costs a lot of money. We actually treat marijuana offenders here more harshly than anywhere else in the state, and it costs money. That's why the DA and the Supreme Court can initiate this change -- they're just bringing Philadelphia in line with the rest of the state and the region."

Drug Policy Alliance New Jersey office director Roseanne Scotti, who lives in Philadelphia, had another concern about the policy shift. "My concern is that there could be an incentive to arrest more people, because it will cost the city less to process them," she said. "And the city will make money on fines. We could see net-widening, with even more people getting arrested. If that's the case, are we better off at the end of the day? This will be a time and money saver for the city, but is this really a good thing for people who use marijuana?"

Time will tell.

Marijuana: Another Colorado Town Votes to Legalize It

Voters in the Rocky Mountain town of Nederland, Colorado, voted Tuesday to remove all local penalties for adult marijuana possession. The measure passed with 54% of the vote in an election that also saw voters oust incumbent Mayor Martin Cheshes, who had opposed the ballot measure.

"It's a foolish thing to put on the ballot," Cheshes told the Daily Camera in nearby Boulder before the election. "If it passes, it enhances the reputation of Nederland as a kooky place, which I don't think we need, and if you're a marijuana advocate, it leaves the only penalties in place the state penalties, which are harsher."

Nederland becomes the third Colorado community to vote to legalize marijuana in the past five years. Denver voters did so in 2005, and the ski resort town of Breckenridge followed suit last year.

Under Colorado law small-time marijuana possession is decriminalized. Officials in Denver ignored the will of the voters there and continue to prosecute marijuana possession offenses under state law. But Boulder County District Attorney Stan Garnett may respond differently.

"I'll pay attention if it passes," he told the Daily Camera before the vote. "Marijuana enforcement is a sensitive issue, and it's important to gauge public sentiment."

"It's time for Colorado's elected officials to recognize that many -- and in some cases most -- of their constituents support an end to marijuana prohibition. Those who fail to do so are the 'foolish' ones, and in some areas it could result in them losing votes," said SAFER executive Mason Tvert.

"Nederland is not the first Colorado locality to express its opinion that marijuana should be legal for adults, and it certainly won't be the last," Tvert said. "More and more Coloradans are beginning to recognize the fact that marijuana is far safer than alcohol for the user and for society, and it's only a matter of time before they decide to stand up against irrational laws that drive people to drink by prohibiting them from making the safer choice."

The southwestern Colorado town of Durango could be the next to vote to legalize it, with organizers working to get an initiative on the local ballot. These votes are laying the groundwork for a probable statewide legalization initiative in 2012. A similar initiative got 44% of the vote in 2006, but recent polls show 50% of Colorado voters now supporting legalization.

Drug War Issues

Criminal JusticeAsset Forfeiture, Collateral Sanctions (College Aid, Drug Taxes, Housing, Welfare), Court Rulings, Drug Courts, Due Process, Felony Disenfranchisement, Incarceration, Policing (2011 Drug War Killings, 2012 Drug War Killings, 2013 Drug War Killings, 2014 Drug War Killings, 2015 Drug War Killings, 2016 Drug War Killings, 2017 Drug War Killings, Arrests, Eradication, Informants, Interdiction, Lowest Priority Policies, Police Corruption, Police Raids, Profiling, Search and Seizure, SWAT/Paramilitarization, Task Forces, Undercover Work), Probation or Parole, Prosecution, Reentry/Rehabilitation, Sentencing (Alternatives to Incarceration, Clemency and Pardon, Crack/Powder Cocaine Disparity, Death Penalty, Decriminalization, Defelonization, Drug Free Zones, Mandatory Minimums, Rockefeller Drug Laws, Sentencing Guidelines)CultureArt, Celebrities, Counter-Culture, Music, Poetry/Literature, Television, TheaterDrug UseParaphernalia, ViolenceIntersecting IssuesCollateral Sanctions (College Aid, Drug Taxes, Housing, Welfare), Violence, Border, Budgets/Taxes/Economics, Business, Civil Rights, Driving, Economics, Education (College Aid), Employment, Environment, Families, Free Speech, Gun Policy, Human Rights, Immigration, Militarization, Money Laundering, Pregnancy, Privacy (Search and Seizure, Drug Testing), Race, Religion, Science, Sports, Women's IssuesMarijuana PolicyGateway Theory, Hemp, Marijuana -- Personal Use, Marijuana Industry, Medical MarijuanaMedicineMedical Marijuana, Science of Drugs, Under-treatment of PainPublic HealthAddiction, Addiction Treatment (Science of Drugs), Drug Education, Drug Prevention, Drug-Related AIDS/HIV or Hepatitis C, Harm Reduction (Methadone & Other Opiate Maintenance, Needle Exchange, Overdose Prevention, Safe Injection Sites)Source and Transit CountriesAndean Drug War, Coca, Hashish, Mexican Drug War, Opium ProductionSpecific DrugsAlcohol, Ayahuasca, Cocaine (Crack Cocaine), Ecstasy, Heroin, Ibogaine, ketamine, Khat, Kratom, Marijuana (Gateway Theory, Marijuana -- Personal Use, Medical Marijuana, Hashish), Methamphetamine, New Synthetic Drugs (Synthetic Cannabinoids, Synthetic Stimulants), Nicotine, Prescription Opiates (Fentanyl, Oxycontin), Psychedelics (LSD, Mescaline, Peyote, Salvia Divinorum)YouthGrade School, Post-Secondary School, Raves, Secondary School